Mikroorganisme dan Proses Pengkomposan

Mengapa pengkomposan penting?

  • Jumlah sampah organik sangat besar. Satu pasar di Jakarta menghasilkan 1200 m3/hari, satu kota Istambul 10,000 ton/hari
  • Penyelesaian dengan landfill atau open dumping murah tetapi menciptakan masalah lingkungan
  • 80% sampah organik berupa bahan mudah busuk
  • Sisanya kertas dan kayu
  • Kompos merupakan cara penanganan sampah yang tidak terlalu rumit dan hasilnya bisa dipakai untuk menyuburkan tanah pertanian




Apakah proses komposting itu?
Proses pembusukan bahan organik menggunakan makhluk hidup, mikroorganisme atau binatang kecil
Menghasilkan hasil akhir CO2 dan H2O, humus, energi panas, biomassa, dan beberapa gas dari tahap sebelumnya: NH3 (96%), NO2 (2%), N2 (2%)
Produksi amonia terjadi kalau anaerobik (tertutup plastik), dikurangi dengan C/N ratio >20.
1 ton kompos setara dengan 7.8 kg urea, dan 12.5 kg triplefosfat 20% N
Mikroorganisme yang terlibat dalam pengkomposanBakteria: Bacillus spp. (B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. circulans), Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, termasuk bakteria termofilik (60-80°C).
Actinomycetes, (lebih tahan pH dan temperature tinggi dibandingkan fungi): Nocardia, Streptomyces, Thermoactinomyces, Micromonospora.
Fungi (perlu N tinggi biasanya, tahan asam dan rentang pH lebar): Basidiomycotina (jamur mesofilik 25-40°C yang merusak kayu), Ganoderma colossum, mushroom.
Thermotolerant Ascomycotina: Sporotrichum thermophile, Talaromyces emersonii, Thermoascus aurantiacus, Paecilomyces sp.
Deuteromycotina: Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium sp., Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., Rhizobacteria spp., Pseudomonas spp.
Lamanya fermentasi/pengkomposanSelain lignin bisa terdekomposisi 7-14 hari.
Lignin terdekomposisi lebih lama: mulai 35 hari (70%) hingga 229 hari.

2 thoughts on “Mikroorganisme dan Proses Pengkomposan

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